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Most of the known history of Tanganyika before the 19th century concerns the coastal area, although the interior has a number of important prehistoric sites.The most significant of these is the Olduvai Gorge, situated in the northwestern corner of Tanzania near the Ngorongoro crater.For some time most of the slaves came from the Kilwa hinterland, and until the 19th century any contact between the coast and the interior was due mainly to African caravans from the interior.
Jakob Erhardt, whose famous “slug” map (showing, on Arab information, a vast shapeless inland lake) helped stimulate the interest of the British explorers Richard Burton and John Hanning Speke.
Almost at once came a reaction to German methods of administration, the outbreak of the Maji Maji uprising in 1905.
Although there was little organization behind it, the uprising spread over a considerable portion of southeastern Tanganyika and was not finally suppressed until 1907.
Wild rubber tapped by Africans, together with plantation-grown rubber, contributed to the economic development of the colony.
The government also supplied good-quality cottonseed free to African growers and sold it cheaply to European planters.